inclusionary zoning: overview » key resources

The following is a list of key resources on topics related to inclusionary zoning. If you're aware of other resources that should be added, please contact us.

From the Forum...

The following resources are drawn from posts to the Inclusionary Zoning Discussion Group on the Forum, an interactive section of this site that allows members to ask questions, offer advice, and share their experience. Any document attached to a Forum post will be added to this list. If you have a resource that should be included, simply reply to a related thread on the Forum - or create a new thread - and attach the file to your post. Click here for instructions on how to add an attachment to your reply.

City of Lafayette Community Housing Guidelines [PDF] -- amended in 2007, describes the cash-in-lieu schedule for the Community Housing Program in Lafayette, Colorado.
Posted in: Setting In Lieu Fees

City of San Leandro Performance Deed of Trust [DOC] -- template used by the City of San Leandro, CA, to secure the City's loan when subsidizing an affordable housing development.
Posted in: Foreclosures on Inclusionary Units

City of Tallahassee Inclusionary Housing Ordinance [PDF] -- adopted in 2005, describes Tallahassee, Florida's inclusionary zoning program.
Posted in: Setting In Lieu Fees

Inclusionary Zoning in a Down Market [PDF] -- slides from a December 2008 presentation sponsored by the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy on how the falling market has impacted inclusionary zoning programs.
Posted in: Webinar 12/16/08: Inclusionary Zoning in a Down Market

Issues to Consider When Creating an Inclusionary Housing Ordinance [PDF] -- prepared by Business and Professional People for the Public Interest (BPI), lists the major components of inclusionary zoning policies and provides guidance to policymakers interested in designing an inclusionary zoning ordinance, including segments of actual ordinance.
Posted in: Setting In Lieu Fees

Lincoln Institute of Land Policy & Center for Housing Policy Best Practices for Inclusionary Zoning issue memos -- provide an overview of best practices related to homeowner association fees; comparability; and in-lieu fees [PDF].
Posted in: HOA Fees and Ongoing Affordability of IZ Units; Ensuring units are comparable; Setting In Lieu Fees

National Examples of Fee-in-Lieu Provisions Under Inclusionary Housing Programs [DOC] -- prepared by BPI, chart provides details on fee-in-lieu payment provisions in more than 20 municipalities.
Posted in: Setting In Lieu Fees

Websites & Organizations

Business and Professional People for the Public Interest has issued many useful reports on inclusionary zoning, all of which are available here. Selected reports include:

Opening the Door to Inclusionary Housing. (no date). By Mary Anderson -- This comprehensive report offers a wealth of information about inclusionary zoning. The first half of the paper describes the various elements of an inclusionary zoning policy and decisions that must be made when developing a policy. The second half of the report contains case studies of inclusionary zoning programs from 12 communities across the country. A condensed version of the report is also available here[PDF].

Voluntary or Mandatory Inclusionary Housing? Production, Predictability, and Enforcement. 2004. By Nicholas Brunick, Lauren Goldberg, and Susannah Levine. This brief paper provides reviews several major arguments in favor of adopting a mandatory, rather than voluntary, inclusionary zoning ordinance.

See also:
The Inclusionary Housing Debate: The Effectiveness of Mandatory Programs Over Voluntary Programs [PDF]. 2004. By Nicholas Brunick. Zoning Practice 9, part 1.

Issues to Consider When Creating an Inclusionary Housing Ordinance [PDF]
This "policy tool" lists the major components of inclusionary zoning policies and provides guidance to policymakers interested in designing an inclusionary zoning ordinance. Segments of actual ordinances are included so readers can learn how programs are designed in other communities.

California Inclusionary Housing Policy Database, maintained by the California Coalition for Rural Housing -- This searchable database contains information on the characteristics of inclusionary zoning policies in California jurisdictions. Users may search by many different variables, including compliance type (mandatory or voluntary); construction alternatives (in-lieu fees, land dedication, etc.); length of affordability; targeted income group and more. The database contains information on all these variables, as well as production statistics where available.

PolicyLink's Equitable Development Toolkit -- This online resource provides information on an array of strategies, including inclusionary zoning, and is intended to provide guidance to advocates interested in advancing social and economic equity.

The National Inclusionary Housing Conference website includes links to an extensive list of publications on inclusionary zoning.

The Innovative Housing Institute is a non-profit organization that provides technical assistance on numerous housing issues, including inclusionary zoning.

Researchers with the National Housing Conference and Center for Housing Policy have prepared a series of reports on inclusionary zoning. These include:

Inclusionary Zoning: A Viable Solution to the Affordable Housing Crisis? [PDF] 2000. New Century Housing 1(2).
This collection of short essays includes analysis of pros and cons related to inclusionary zoning; potential arguments that may be anticipated in opposition of inclusionary zoning (and suggested responses); and reactions from the developer and homebuilder perspectives.

Inclusionary Zoning: Lessons Learned in Massachusetts. [PDF] 2002. NHC Affordable Housing Policy Review 2(1).
This collection of short essays looks specifically at inclusionary zoning in Massachusetts, and includes three case studies of communities in the state that have implemented inclusionary zoning ordinances. Other essays assess the constitutionality of inclusionary zoning policies and strategies for involving developers in the creation of an inclusionary ordinance.

Inclusionary Zoning: The California Experience. [PDF] 2004. NHC Affordable Housing Policy Review 3(1).
This collection of short essays examine how inclusionary zoning policies have been applied in California, including local origins of inclusionary zoning, an overview of the evolution of inclusionary programs and findings related to how programs are designed. Additional essays discuss constitutional challenges related to inclusionary zoning and research related to its impact on housing and land markets.

The Non-Profit Housing Association of Northern California and the Home Builders Association of Northern California issued On Common Ground: Joint Principles on Inclusionary Housing Policies [PDF], which represents an agreement among advocates and developers in the Bay Area on principles to guide inclusionary zoning.

The Transportation Land Use Coalition's online Guide to Inclusionary Zoning walks users through an overview of inclusionary zoning, a series of case studies and more information about how to implement the tool in a local community. The guide includes links for more information as well as a series of contacts.


Affordable by Choice: Trends in California Inclusionary Housing Programs. [PDF] 2007. San Francisco, CA: Non-Profit Housing Association of Northern California.
This report examines housing produced through inclusionary housing programs in California from 1999 to mid-2006.

Inclusionary Zoning: A Framework for Assessing the Advantages and Disadvantages. [PDF] 2008. By Dustin C. Read. Prepared for Homes for Working Families.
This paper provides an overview of the potential benefits and drawbacks associated with inclusionary zoning policies, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of economic incentives that may be offered to participating developers. The analysis also reviews evidence regarding the economic incidence of inclusionary zoning policies and assesses the likely effectiveness of inclusionary policies in strong and weak markets.

Inclusionary Zoning Guidelines for Cities and Towns. [PDF] 2000. By Edith M. Netter, Esq. Prepared for the Massachusetts Housing Partnership Fund.
This detailed checklist walks through a series of decisions that need to be made when designing and implementing an inclusionary zoning ordinance. While written primarily for local policymakers in Massachusetts, the checklist nonetheless offers useful guidance for a general audience.

Inclusionary Zoning: Legal Issues. [PDF] 2002. Prepared by the California Affordable Housing Law Project of the Public Interest Law Project and Western Center on Law & Poverty.
This report, while directed at readers in California, provides useful guidance on legal issues related to inclusionary zoning. Topics covered include police power and land use, authority to impose inclusionary requirements, "takings" challenges and nexus studies.

Long-Term Affordable Housing Strategies in Hot Housing Markets. [PDF] 2008. By Jesse Mintz-Roth. Washington, DC: NeighborWorks America and Cambridge, MA: Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies.
This paper reviews housing policies that can be used to create and maintain long-term affordability in "hot" markets. Specific tools discussed include shared equity and limited equity cooperatives, housing trust funds, and inclusionary zoning. The author also evaluates the trade-offs associated with each of these policies related to longevity, affordability, and equity-generation.

The Mix of Housing by John McIlwain and Making Inclusionary Zoning Work by David Holtzman. Both in Multifamily Trends. September/October 2007. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute.
These short essays provide key principles to be considered when designing an inclusionary zoning ordinance. These include "Keep it Simple," "Be Generous with the Incentives" and "Collaboration is Key."

The Builder's Perspective on Inclusionary Zoning. [DOC] 2005. By Edward A. Tombari. Smart Growth, Smart Choices series. Washington, DC: National Association of Home Builders.
This critique of inclusionary zoning describes several existing ordinances in communities around the country and explores the potential economic effects of inclusionary zoning, including the impact on the housing supply and market-rate home prices. The author proposes several alternatives for producing affordable homes, including housing trust funds and formation of public-private partnerships to fund construction of affordable homes.

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