shared equity: overview » key resources

The following is a list of key resources on topics related to shared equity homeownership and resident acquisition of manufactured home parks. If you're aware of other resources that should be added, please contact us.

Resources on shared equity homeownership


The National Association of Housing Cooperatives is a national nonprofit organization representing a membership of housing cooperatives and other resident-controlled communities. It provides general information on cooperative housing and includes targeted resources for a variety of readers, from co-op boards to those interested in starting new co-ops.

The National Community Land Trust Network is a membership organization of community land trusts (CLTs) that works to build awareness of the CLT model, increase investment in CLTs, and advocate for policies that promote development of CLTs. It includes a best practices library and a CLT Academy that offers training to practitioners.


The Center for Housing Policy has compiled a suite of resources on shared equity homeownership. These materials include:
  • An Overview [PDF] outlining the continuum of homeownership subsidy programs.
  • A Spreadsheet [Excel] that allows you to test different approaches to shared equity in your community.
  • A Webpage on the application of shared equity homeownership in weak housing markets.
The City-CLT Partnership: Municipal Support for Community Land Trusts. [PDF] 2008. By Rick Jacobus and David Emmeus Davis. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institue of Land Policy.
This report provides a comprehensive overview of the community land trust (CLT) model and the range of opportunities for local governments to support their local CLT. The report covers municipal oversight and regulation of CLT activities to preserve long-term housing affordability, describes current trends around the nation, and cites best practices of several existing municipal-CLT partnerships.

Long-Term Affordable Housing Strategies in Hot Housing Markets. [PDF] 2008. By Jesse Mintz-Roth. Washington, DC: NeighborWorks America and Cambridge, MA: Harvard Joint Center for Housing Studies.
This paper reviews housing policies that can be used to create and maintain long-term affordability in "hot" markets. Specific tools discussed include shared equity and limited equity cooperatives, housing trust funds, and inclusionary zoning. The author also evaluates the trade-offs associated with each of these policies related to longevity, affordability, and equity-generation.

Community Land Trust Online Handbook. E. F. Schumacher Society.
This online compendium of materials contains by-laws, articles of incorporation, lease agreements, and associated document to assist in the start-up for new Land Trust organizations.

Shared Equity Homeownership: The Changing Landscape of Resale-restricted, Owner Occupied Housing. [PDF] 2006. By John Emmeus Davis. Newark, NJ: National Housing Institute.
This detailed guide to shared equity homeownership describes the history of shared equity models in the U.S., common shared equity structures (deed restrictions, community land trusts, and limited equity cooperatives), and contractual controls over use and resale of homes in a shared equity approach. It also covers the roles state and local governments can play in promoting shared equity homeownership. A discussion of the claims and criticisms of shared equity homeownership concludes the report.

Shared Equity Mortgages, Housing Affordability, and Homeownership. 2007. By Andrew Caplin, James H. Carr, Frederick Pollock, Zhong Yi Tong, Kheng Mei Tan and Trivikraman Thampy. Washington, DC: Fannie Mae Foundation.
This report describes shared equity mortgage (SEM) mechanisms and argues that consumers would prefer these types of loans to other affordable mortgage products. The authors estimate that introducing SEMs would increase the U.S. homeownership rate by 1-1.5%, but reform of mortgage industry regulations would be required.

Sharing the Wealth: Resident Ownership Mechanisms. 2001. By Heather McCulloch and Lisa Robinson. Oakland, CA: PolicyLink.
This report discusses the importance of asset building and identifies strategies to involve low-income households in their community's economic development. Community land trusts and limited equity cooperatives are highlighted as equity building opportunities.

Taking Shared Equity to Scale -- Reports prepared for the December 12, 2007 Symposium on this topic co-sponsored by NeighborWorks America and NCB Capital Impact.
This collection of reports includes a synopsis and papers from the NeighborWorks America and NCB Capital Impact symposium on shared equity. Shared equity approaches discussed include inclusionary housing, land trusts, deed restrictions, co-ops, and shared equity mortgages.


A New Way Home: Sharing Equity to Build Wealth. 2007.
This video produced by NCB Capital Impact and NeighborWorks America highlights local shared equity homeownership programs across the country that are providing wealth building homeownership opportunities while preserving affordability for future generations.

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Resources on resident acquisition of manufactured home parks


I'M HOME - Innovations in Manufactured Homes
I'M HOME, a national initiative headed by CFED, supports programs across the country that are helping families who choose manufactured homes receive fair treatment and build durable assets. To be good investments for these families, I'M HOME argues that manufactured homes should be well-built and installed on a proper foundation once they reach their destination. Financing should be fair and affordable. Homeowners should own, or have long term control over, the land underneath the homes. And, finally, when it's time to move, the homeowners should be able to sell the homes at a fair value.

Manufactured Home Owners Association of America
A national organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in manufactured housing in the United States.

State Manufactured Housing Landlord-Tenant and Sale of Park Statutes
This list, compiled by the National Conference of State Legislatures, catalogs state legislation passed prior to April 2007 that protects tenants in manufactured homes and supports resident owned communities.

ROC USA is a social enterprise that offers training, networking, and financing to help homeowners gain security through community ownership. Through two subsidiaries, ROC USA Network and ROC USA Capital, they train and certify Technical Assistance Providers to provide pre- and post-purchase training services to homeowner group and provide loans to help homeowner groups purchase their manufactured home communities.

Articles & Reports

Building Wealth Through Ownership: Resident-Owned Manufactured Housing Communities in New Hampshire. April 2008. By Charlie French, Kelly Giraud and Sally Ward. Durham, New Hampshire: Journal of Extension.
This study examines whether manufactured homes in New Hampshire outperform investor-owned manufactured housing parks from a social and economic standpoint. The research findings suggest that resident-owned manufactured housing parks indeed provide a more affordable housing option for low-income families, as well as an enhanced sense of ownership and an opportunity to build equity.

"Mobile" Homes No More: Policy Innovations in Manufactured Housing. [PDF]. 2005. By David Buchholz. Housing Facts and Findings 7(4). Washington, DC: Fannie Mae Foundation.
This article provides an overview of recent policy changes related to manufactured homes, particularly with regard to financing, land ownership and zoning. A list of web sites and articles provides links to further information.

Moving Home: Manufactured Housing in Rural America [PDF]. 2005. Washington, DC: Housing Assistance Council.
This HAC report includes a data analysis regarding manufactured housing in rural America. It includes information on manufactured home land ownership, renter-occupied manufactured homes, and manufactured home communities.

Click here to view other resources on Modular and Factory Built Homes

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From the Forum
The following resources are drawn from posts to the Shared Equity Homeownership Discussion Group on the Forum, an interactive section of this site that allows members to ask questions, offer advice, and share their experience. Any document attached to a Forum post will be added to this list. If you have a resource that should be included, simply reply to a related thread on the Forum - or create a new thread - and attach the file to your post. Click here for instructions on how to add an attachment to your reply.

A suite of resources on shared equity homeownership -- released by the Center for Housing Policy in April 2007, provides basic and detailed information on how to design and implement a shared equity homeownership program.
Posted in: Basics of Shared Equity

Balancing Durable Affordability and Wealth Creation: Responding to Concerns about Shared Equity Homeownership [PDF] -- Prepared by the Center for Housing Policy, this report explores the potential of shared equity models to balance long-term affordability and asset-building objectives.
Posted in: Live at the Forum with Rick Jacobus of Burlington Associates and Barbara Lightsy of the City of Lakes CLT

CFHomes Program Detail [DOC]: Workforce Housing and Foreclosure Response -- memo describes a City First Enterprises project to create 100 workforce homes in mixed-income developments citywide.
Posted in: Community Land Trust begins in Oakland, California

Fannie Mae guidelines for price restricted buyers -- one of the handouts for a May 8, 2009 webinar.
Posted in: Webinar: Mortgage financing for price restricted homebuyers

FHA guidelines for price restricted buyers -- one of the handouts for a May 8, 2009 webinar.
Posted in: Webinar: Mortgage financing for price restricted homebuyers

Mortgage Financing for Price Restricted Homebuyers [PDF] -- PowerPoint presentation from May 2009 Lincoln Institute for Land Policy webinar.
Posted in: Webinar: Mortgage financing for price restricted homebuyers

Reserve Fee Analysis spreadsheet [XLS] -- prepared by the Center for Housing Policy for the Forum, provides balance projections for a hypothetical reserve fund based on 3 scenarios.
Posted in: Reserves and Property Maintenance

Rural Development guidelines for price restricted buyers -- one of the handouts for a May 8, 2009 webinar.
Posted in: Webinar: Mortgage financing for price restricted homebuyers

Shared Equity Homeownership [DOC] -- Handout prepared by NCB Capital Impact that describes shared equity homeownership programs and their benefits.
Posted in: Great Shared Equity Discussion Opportunities in Chicago in Late June

Taking Shared Equity Homeownership to Scale [PDF] -- Proposal for a federal demonstration to expand the visibility and reach of shared equity homeownership programs.
Posted in: Great Shared Equity Discussion Opportunities in Chicago in Late June

Thistle lender letter [PDF] -- Example of of a sample letter sent by Thistle Communities to potential new lenders or homebuyers.
Posted in: Webinar: Mortgage financing for price restricted homebuyers

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